In the Kraft Process, high alkalinity and temperature converts the esters and carboxylic acids in rosin into soluble sodium soaps of lignin , rosin , and fatty acids . The spent cooking liquor is called weak black liquor and is about 15% dry content. The black liquor is concentrated in a multiple effect evaporator and after the first stage the black liquor is about 20 - 30%. At this stage it is called intermediate liquor. Normally the soaps start to float in the storage tank for the weak or intermediate liquors and are skimmed off and collected. A good soap skimming operation reduces the soap content of the black liquor down to - % w/w of the dry residue. The collected soap is called raw rosin soap or rosinate . The raw rosin soap is then allowed to settle or is centrifuged to release as much as possible of the entrained black liquor. The soap goes then to the acidulator where it is heated and acidified with sulfuric acid to produce crude tall oil (CTO).
Whilst all this is playing out, it is clear that we will need to invent new regulatory and ethical regimes. Current governance methods are already outdated and is not providing the assurance business and society needs. One of the key changes that we have detected is that intangible drivers make up a much larger percentage of organisational value. The current accounting standards do not support this trend.
It is against this backdrop that we, along with Cambridge University have undertaken an extensive study on how accounting and reporting could look in the 21st Century. Our findings indicate that investors and other stakeholders find little value in the way that companies report today.
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