Günther distinguished Aryans from Jews, and identified Jews as descending from non-European races, particularly from what he classified as the Near Asian race ( Vorderasiatische ) more commonly known as the Armenoid race , and said that such origins rendered Jews fundamentally different from and incompatible with Germans and most Europeans.  This association of Jews with the Armenoid type had been utilized by Zionist Jews who claimed that Jews were a group within that type.  He claimed that the Near Eastern race descended from the Caucasus in the fifth and fourth millennia BC, and that it had expanded into Asia Minor and Mesopotamia and eventually to the west coast of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.  Aside from ascribing Armenians and Jews as having Near Eastern characteristics, he ascribed them to several other contemporary peoples, including: Greeks , Turks , Syrians , and Iranians .  In his work Racial Characteristics of the Jewish People , he defined the racial soul of the Near Eastern race as emphasizing a "commercial spirit" ( Handelgeist ), and described them as "artful traders" - a term that Gunther ascribed as being used by Jewish racial theorist Samuel Weissenberg to describe contemporary Armenians, Greeks, and Jews.  Günther added to that description of the Near Eastern type as being composed primarily of commercially spirited and artful traders, by claiming that the type held strong psychological manipulation skills that aided them in trade.  He claimed that the Near Eastern race had been "bred not so much for the conquest and exploitation of nature as it was for the conquest and exploitation of people".