Dysgraphia means "disturbance of or difficulty with orthographic-motor integration" (. handwriting). The term describes purely the handwriting difficulty as it is possible for this to be an isolated problem and not associated with a more general disorder. Some researchers have described sub-categories of dysgraphia in order to study it better, such as 'surface dysgraphia' or 'deep dysgraphia'. These recognize that weaknesses in different types of processing may be responsible for the problem, such as motor control, visual perception and spelling difficulties. The term may be used differently by different professionals so it is important to check what is meant by the term in any one context.
Lois Addy is an independent SEND advisor, teaching both nationally and internationally. She was previously the Lead for Cognition and Learning for North Yorkshire County Council, and formerly lectured at York St John University and York University. She has qualifications in occupational therapy, psychology and education, and has over 34 years’ experience in working with children with SEN. She has a particular interest in children with developmental coordination disorder (dyspraxia) and her research in this area has included: developing social skills, dyscalculia, handwriting, sensory regulation, learning styles, reasons for children and young people’s emotional and behavioural difficulties, and access to physical education.